CSR

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Corporate Social Responsibility: A Sustainable Solution

Contents

Introduction

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), also known as corporate responsibility, corporate accountability, corporate ethics, corporate citizenship, sustainability, and responsible business, can be defined as the continuing commitment by business to behave ethically and contribute to economic development while improving the quality of life of the workforce and their families as well as of that of the local community and society at large. It's about responsible production processes, socially responsible employee relations, community involvement, and sustainability. It's about doing things right.

Furthermore, although CSR can be an effective strategy for bolstering a company's public image, avoiding regulation, gaining legitimacy, accessing markets and decision makers, and shifting the ground towards privitisation of public functions, it is important to remember that it is fundamentally about tackling the bigger issues of over-consumption, climate change, workers rights, and the, sometimes massive, economic inequality that exists between the developed consumer nations and the developing producer nations.

And even though it is beyond the point where anyone can rationally dispute global warming, and at the point that society as a whole must accept that the human race is at least partly responsible for it (although it can be argued how much society is responsible since the globe has warmed and cooled throughout history without human involvement), as well as beyond the point where no one should accept any violations of human rights, and beyond the point where it is necessary to harm the environment to profit, CSR is still a very contentious issue. Wall Street is quick to point out that, in the words of the Nobel Prize economist Milton Friedman, "the business of business is business", and its irresponsible for the business to pursue any strategy that does not maximize profit and shareholder return.

The Basics

Broadly speaking, as stated in From Shareholders to Stakeholders: the Corporate Board's Newest Challenge, CSR can be said to be about the three P's: profits, people, and place. The fundamental goal of a business is to make profit, social responsibility is about people - employees, customers, and shareholders, and the goal is to protect the environment, the place in which people live.

The topic of Corporate Social Responsibility, which lacks a common definition, is quite broad. It covers a wide range of issues relating to the people involved and the environment which includes issues such as worker rights, fair trade, waste management, emissions reduction, and ethics. It's also confusing and often misunderstood. Consider an article from the Economist, Profit and the Public Good, which noted that not all CSR policies represent good management, some fall into the categories of "borrowed virtue", "pernicious CSR", or "delusional CSR". Furthermore, some CSR efforts go beyond what some would consider good management.

Borrowed virtue is when a corporation diverts funds towards a charitable cause that is not in the best interest of the business or the shareholders and does so on the whim of an executive or director. For an example, when a CEO of a major retailer decides to create a private wilderness or reserve at the shareholders expense instead of investing in greener transportation methods or packaging.

Pernicious Corporate Social Responsibility is when a corporation makes effort, either through lobbying to the law makers or to the general public, to block competition in the name of specious environmental goals, instead of working to reduce its own impact on the environment.

Delusional Corporate Social Responsibility is when a corporation focusses on a cause without considering the effects. For example, choosing to conserve raw materials thought to be in diminishing supply in favor of alternatives whose usage requires more processing and, thus, produces greater emissions of greenhouse gases.

Then there is the issue that for-profit businesses exist to maximize shareholder profit and that simply going beyond compliance with all laws and regulations is not responsible. Fortunately, companies with good socially responsible reputations have social capital not possessed by their peers, social capital which can translate into more business from socially conscious consumers, and, thus, more profits.

Others believe that it's simply enough to not be evil, that not being irresponsible is enough. In other words, a company that is transparent with financials, produces a quality product and represents it fairly, quickly notifies the customer of any aspect that might endanger their well being, does not use predatory practices, does not pollute, and is respectful and open is considered to be socially responsible.

CSR is driven by progressive business who believe that social value, in terms of societal improvements and environmentally sound practices, is important - that there's more to business than just creating monetary wealth. As much as we'd like to think that public pressure in terms of lobby groups, consumers, and media was a key driver, it's the businesses that have the most power to effect change. Although it's true that those companies that don't act socially responsible are likely to be boycotted by consumers and, thus, risk financial insolvency, it is the corporations that have the most power. And these companies, which have already demonstrated that they could be responsible without detracting from commercial success and which are starting to see CSR as an integral part of long-term strategy, need to start making a significant contribution to social causes and environmental degradation, since they are the ones capable of making the most significant difference.


Benefits

Risk Management
Why wait for a regulation that could stop production dead in its tracks, or a consumer boycott that could wipe out quarterly sales to hit, before the firm does something about it? A good CSR strategy will insure that the firm's products meet regulations before they are introduced and that consumers will have no good reason to even think about boycotting the firm's products or turning the firm into the next Shell or Nike.

Reputation Management
A corporation can build a good reputation or hope it gets lucky. Given that Harris interactive has found that 71% of adults in the United States think that corporate America's reputation as a whole is either "not good" or "terrible" and 48% perceive corporate reputation in recent years as having declined "a lot", the odds are quite stacked against a corporation getting lucky.

Attraction and Retention of Talent
Corporations today need to recognize that social responsibility is important to the next generation of leaders from Generation X and Generation Y. A good CSR program can go a long way to improving employee satisfaction.

Return on Investment
Fortune Magazine has calculated that a change of 1 point on "Americas Most Admired Companies" list positively or negatively affects a company's market value by an average of 107M. Furthermore, the portfolios of the most admired companies show cumulative returns of 126% while those of the least admired show cumulative returns of only 80%. Furthermore, a good CSR program can make any company more competitive.

Operational Cost Savings
Investment in environmental efficiency measures often yield rates of return through cost savings that compare favorably with most investments. Plus, the savings continue year-after-year.

Investor Relations
Investors want to know a company they are considering investing in is on top of all of the issues that matter. Furthermore, investment funds that will only invest in ethically and environmentally responsible companies are starting to become more common. A good CSR policy will help in securing funding from investors, and even from banks who want to toot their own horn about responsible lending.

Government Relations
Diligence in a CSR program can result in a red-tape reduction and a considerably more cooperative relationship, especially when entering a new region.

Innovation
Addressing sustainability necessitates interaction with a wide range of individuals and organizations outside of the traditional business relationships of a company.


Challenges

Plethora of Individual Buyer CSR Codes
Just about every buyer has their own, unique, CSR code. This is leading to inefficiency and confusion. Inefficiency as a result of overlap and diversity among buyer codes and confusion in that the diversity of buyer requirements serve as a barrier to suppliers who do not know the best way to go about demonstrating commitment. The individual suppliers become too preoccupied with meeting the different buyer requirements to be able to commit sufficient time and resources to address a real implementation that is truly sustainable and long-term. Furthermore, duplicate requirements put unnecessary financial burdens on suppliers, especially small and mid-size suppliers, who end up getting caught in a "compliance limbo".

Whenever possible, base the CSR Code of conduct on an open standard code maintained by one of the large non-profit organizations in the relevant region(s) or vertical(s). The closer it is to a standard code, the easier it should be for a supplier to comply.

Supplier Lack of Understanding of the Business Benefits
Suppliers usually have an insufficient understanding of the business benefits that are associated with making the required investments in corporate social responsibility. When presenting a supplier with the organization's codes of conduct, be sure to explain the benefits they can expect.

Reputation
As quoted in Is Your Corporate Reputation a Liability on Your Balance Sheet, Harris interactive has found that 71% of adults in the United States think that corporate America's reputation as a whole is either "not good" or "terrible" and 48% perceive corporate reputation in recent years as having declined "a lot".

Furthermore, many consumers believe that multinational corporations are actively negotiating with government and local authorities to be (partly) exempted from government regulations in areas that include taxation, environment, and labor standards - everything that CSR does not stand for. This lack of consumer faith in the corporation only serves to undermine the business case.

Over-Reliance on Monitoring
The use of third-party monitors can often act as a barrier between parties. There are concerns about the proficiency and credibility of monitoring done by third parties, the ability of monitoring to address qualitative labor issues or achieve an effective means of engaging in dialogue about working conditions and workers' rights, and that monitoring is simply used as an "excuse" by local governments not to invest in enforcement efforts.

Stakeholder Lobbying
Stakeholders who are not sensitive to the long-term nature of CSR will often incite campaigns to convince companies to cut ties with noncompliant suppliers and this only results in negative consequences for workers and communities with no other source of income, instead of allowing the company to work with a willing supplier to bring them into compliance.

Extent of CSR Code
Many CSR efforts only extend to the first tier of suppliers. True CSR needs to go beyond the first tier of suppliers and also include subcontracts and, where relevant, home-workers.

The International Trade Regime
World Trade Organization (WTO) rules are inconsistent in that they focus on the impact of products on consumers, but not on the impact of products at the point of production.

Lack of Competition
If the industry is dominated by a small level of brand name companies, it may be impossible to get buy-in or movement unless they are also jumping on-board the CSR bandwagon. This can be overcome by identifying a major positive impact financially or operationally that CSR can have for the business or identifying a crisis, such as a severe health hazard or factory working conditions, that could lead to a media nightmare if not immediately rectified.


Major Areas of Concern

This section discusses a few of the major areas of concern for a company preparing a position on Corporate Social Responsibility.

Labour and Rights

A recent survey of US consumers by the Fleishman-Hillard/National Consumers League found that more than three-fifths of respondents believed it was important for companies to use workers in the US before hiring overseas, to ensure all workers, both inside and outside the US, are paid a fair living wage, and for those companies to act just as responsibly when conducting business in other countries. All labour needs to be treated fairly, not just the labour at home.

There are a number of things an organization must do to be socially responsible with respect to labor and rights issues. These include:

  • ensure all employees do not have their basic human rights infringed upon in any way, shape or form
  • freedom of association and employee representation
  • wages are fair, equitable, represent a living wage, and are in full compliance with the law and industry standards
  • working hours are fair and do not exceed the legal limit
  • regular workers are employed as such and given full benefits, not as repeated temporary contracts, apprenticeship terms, or other contract relationships designed specifically to avoid giving them the benefits they are due
  • no forced labour, where forced labour is any work carried out under threat of penalty, including forced overtime, penalty-based employment, bonded labour, and involuntary prison labour
  • zero tolerance for physical, verbal, or sexual abuse
  • zero tolerance for harassment, demeaning, or insulting behavior in the workplace
  • disciplinary procedures and policies are transparent, applied equally to all employees, and effectively communicated to all workers in their native language
  • no discrimination on gender, race, national origin, religion, caste, class, age, disability, marital status, sexual orientation, political affiliation, professional association or union membership
  • no recruiting or employment of children under 15 in full compliance with the International Labour Organization conventions
  • minors who are employed in compliance with the ILO conventions do not work at night or in hazardous conditions, have their health and safety protected at all times, and are not denied education
  • ensure all of its suppliers adhere to the same code of ethics


Health & Safety

There are a number of things an organization must do to be socially responsible with respect to health and safety. These include:

  • maintaining a clean, safe, and healthy workplace in compliance with all applicable laws
  • taking adequate steps to prevent accidents and injuries, including risk assessments, provision of appropriate protective equipment, and training
  • the provision of support services, including schooling, medical and health facilities, and recreational facilities in geographically isolated areas
  • ensuring a sufficient number of staff are properly trained in first aid and that there are a sufficient number of properly equipped first aid boxes readily available
  • documenting safe usage instructions for all machinery as well as health and safety policies and procedures in the workers' native language
  • ensuring all suppliers adhere to the same code of ethics

Community and Conduct

Firms that lie and cheat cannot expect to stay in business very long, even if their actions are allowed by law. Dishonest companies will be unable to borrow, to obtain working capital, or to form stable business relationships with suppliers and customers. Decency in this sense is not just good for business, it is essential. When it comes to maximising long-term owner value, honesty is not just the best policy, it is the only feasible policy. (The World According to CSR, The Economist, January 2005)

A socially responsible company cares about the community in which it operates. It will not sell products which are intrinsically harmful in any way and if it uncovers any defects, it will take steps to notify the public immediately and work with partners to notify affected consumers and effect a recall. It will not manipulate the public in any way and will not support lobbying that is against the public good.

It will apply with all relevant local, regional, and global regulations, including those adopted by the industry in which it operates. It will pay its taxes in full and cooperate with the respective governments when required. It will take an interest in the local community and contribute to it as part of its corporate philanthropy program.

It will make the workplace a place workers want to come to. It will provide regular training and advancement opportunities. It will extend training to life management, retirement planning, and even dependent care. It will be open to job splitting, flextime, and work-life balance for those positions that don't require fixed hours. It will maintain and encourage a healthy workplace. It will encourage employee volunteering in the community and even sponsor employees to give back occasionally. It will make an effort to do some purchasing from local suppliers and to provide local charities and community groups products and services at cost.

It will look for creative ways to avoid layoffs in a downturn and when layoffs are close or unavoidable, offer outplacement services and go the extra mile to insure its workers are taken care of and successfully transition to new jobs or careers. It will provide free job-search training as well as training to those who can transition to a new job within the company and relocation assistance for those willing to move elsewhere to work in a different unit or division.

Environment

A whole wiki can be devoted to environmental corporate social responsibility alone, and maybe someday one will appear on the pages herein, but since this is just an introductory wiki-paper, here are a few of the things that need to be included in a corporate social responsibility plan.

  • a clear statement that the corporation will comply with all local, national, and international laws and regulations
  • a goal of continuous improvement in environmental performance, regardless of what the regulations require
  • practical efforts to minimize use of energy, water, raw materials, and chemicals and the use of renewable resources when feasible
  • sincere efforts to minimize waste of all kinds and strict requirements to dispose of any waste produced in an efficient, safe, and environmental friendly manner
  • inclusive training programs in environmental risks and policies
  • strict controls on air emissions and well-defined efforts designed to continually reduce emissions on a year-over-year basis


Implementation Framework

This section defines a framework that a company can use to construct, implement, evaluate, and improve its corporate social responsibility program.

Conduct an Assessment

Start with an internal audit that will determine who is in charge of corporate giving, whether or not each gift can be defended with solid research, what training the team has in terms of the strategic dissemination of corporate gifts, and whether or not thorough standards for transparency were applied to the corporation's philanthropy programs, enabling them to stand up to potentially rigorous examination. Remember that the SEC's new disclosure requirements are designed to deter significant charitable contributions made for, or on behalf, of a director or chief executive.

Be sure to also include the soft investments. Specifically, look carefully at the charitable donations and those that do not mesh with the business activities of the firm. There should be an underlying strategy for all investments and a vision as to how they will deliver value to the firm.

A proper CSR assessment will also identify the firm's values and ethics, internal and external drivers of CSR, key CSR issues that are (potentially) affecting the firm, the key stakeholders that will need to be engaged in strategy formulation, any inadequacies in the decision-making process, and the human resource and budgetary initiatives. It should be done by a CSR leadership team who will also develop a working definition of CSR that can be used to bring all of the stakeholders on the same page.

Finally, remember that most consumers define CSR in ways that are relevant to them, usually without the guidance of experts, so it's important to do thorough research to understand the issues most relevant to the target market(s). Also, technology is constantly changing the landscape in which consumers gather and communicate information about how well companies are being responsible, so be sure to not only check the electronic ether, but also spend time communicating the corporation's message across the channels its consumers use.

Develop a Strategy

A good strategy will define the overall direction the corporation is taking with respect to CSR, outline a basic approach for proceeding, focus on specific priority areas, and detail any immediate next steps.

Developing a strategy will require the support of senior management and the employees, considerable research into what others are doing, the identification of potential options, and the selection of the best options for the business case. But mostly it will involve asking a lot of questions.

  • what activities has the firm already undertaken
  • how do the actions fit together and with the general strategy
  • what strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats are presented
  • does the company take advantage of key skills and distinctive competencies
  • are decisions integrated into business systems & decision processes
  • what are the goals
  • where could the firm be in ten years
  • what changes need to take place to become a CSR leader
  • what activities or initiatives could easily be undertaken now
  • which CSR initiatives or activities would have a particularly big impact
  • can proposed changes be organized into short, medium, and long-term deliverables
  • what are the resource implications of the deliverables
  • what changes to the firm's structure would need to occur
  • what are the obstacles or impediments
  • what opportunities for cost reduction are present
  • what are the risks associated of failing to take into account the
  • broader environmental, social, & economic aspects

The strategy should be based on research, include a management support system, training modules, and procedures for monitoring and inspection. Be sure the strategy selected is not protectionist or discriminatory and promotes enterprise development.


Create a Responsible Culture

No strategy will truly be successful unless the whole company is behind it - this includes the employees as well as management and the board. An appropriate culture is one that has management credibility, the right climate, and open communication. The management must be honest, consistent, and competent; the work environment must be supportive and rewarding of those that display the desired behaviors; and the communication between employees and between management and employees must be open and clear.

Define Commitments

Before developing CSR commitments, a firm must understand the range of available commitments and the distinctions between them. In particular, the firm must understand the distinction between aspirational and prescriptive commitments. Aspirational commitments tend to articulate the long-term goals of a firm and are usually written in general language, while prescriptive commitments, such as codes of conduct, stipulate more specific behaviours that the firm explicitly agrees to comply with. Both are important and both need to be present.

Furthermore, the process of developing the CSR commitments should recognize that considerable potential exists for misunderstandings and miscommunication about expectations. These can challenge a successful outcome. There will be a need to be pragmatic and focused throughout the process, especially since this phase will require the input of all major stakeholders.

The outcome of this phase will be a clearly defined "business case" that fully defines the costs and benefits of attending to social and environmental principles more fully. The business case will differ from firm-to-firm depending on factors that may include the firm's size, products, activities, location, suppliers, leadership, and reputation.

When building the business case, be sure to focus on areas in which the firm could potentially gain a competitive advantage, identify those areas in which stakeholders might have particular influence, indicate possible leverage points, and define some short-and-long term goals. Also, determine the estimate costs of implementing each option, the opportunities for cost reductions, the anticipated benefits, and any risks or threats posed by each option.

Implement Commitments

Once the commitments are identified, the following process can be used to effect their implementation:

  • develop an integrated CSR decision-making structure
  • prepare and implement a CSR business plan
  • set measurable targets and identify performance measures
  • Simple Measurable Achievable Reliable Time-bound
  • engage employees and others to whom commitments apply
  • design and conduct CSR training
  • establish mechanisms for addressing problematic behaviors
  • create internal and external communication plans

Verify and Report on Progress

Measuring profits is fairly straightforward, but measuring environmental protection and social justice is not. However, evaluation and reporting, although normally quite subjective, need not be fully subjective. There are numerous guidelines, including the Global Sullivan Principles, the U.N. Global Compact and a subset of the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) standards that can be used to make reporting more objective for the average corporation.

However, it will still be difficult, since there is no one best answer when dealing with the triple bottom line. One company reduces its emissions of greenhouse gases. One increases its spending on recycling. Another provides free child-care facilities for its workers. Another raises the wages of its lowest-paid workers. All of these things cost money: suppose, for the sake of argument, that all four have reduced profit by the same amount. Which company has done most to protect the environment? Which has done most to advance social progress? Overall, how far has each company improved its triple bottom line? Bearing in mind the cost, can you even say that any of them have done so? (The World According to CSR, The Economist, January 2005) That's why it's important to have a well defined business plan for CSR, that makes sense for the business, and measure against that plan.

Evaluate and Improve

A good plan is constantly improving. Thus, it's important that after every verification and reporting phase that the company ask itself how it went, answer honestly, and revise its strategy and direction appropriately. Specifically, identify what worked well, why it worked well, what did not work well, why it did not work well, what the firm learned from the experienced, how the CSR priorities will alter, if at all, in the coming year, and if there are any new objectives.


The Role of the Board

The role of the board is not to sit back and watch, but to get involved. A board that allows CSR to become a side issue to be addressed outside the main business channel is a board that, in the long run, opens up the door to an issue that will, in all likelihood, prove more costly while potentially posing a serious threat to credibility. Social responsibility must be addressed with the business planning process of the corporation or any opportunities it presents to improve the bottom line could be lost. Remember, Corporate Social Responsibility is often as much about risk mitigation these days as it is about doing good, and that makes it the fiduciary responsibility of the directors on the board. When risks can range from litigation to regulation to reputational to physical, the board just cannot afford to overlook corporate social responsibility.

A board needs to employ a systematic approach to manage risk that complements the implementation framework described earlier in this wiki-paper. This approach must include active management of the company's reputation, ensuring that risk mitigation policies and procedures are formalized and communicated throughout the company, and that the CEO and management team are directed to to design and implement a risk management plan that includes mechanisms for unencumbered decision-making and maximum speed of response.

The article Is Your Corporation a Liability on Your Balance Sheet notes that the board should not overlook the role of scenario planning in their effort to help guide the definition of the company's long-term corporate social responsibility plan. The article also points out that this will require that the board use broad-based and long term thinking, appreciate the power of a company's cultural and political climate, see patterns in events rather than seeing events in isolation, and leave their comfort zones and start to govern in the realm of uncertainty.

It is also the responsibility of the board to insure that the culture and climate of the company is responsible. This means that the board collectively needs to ask themselves whether or not they are regularly monitoring the culture of the company, what their greatest risks of an Enron or WorldCom are and what they are doing to prevent that from ever happening, and whether the board themselves behaves in accordance with a complementary and clear ethic of fairness, integrity, and transparency. They should also insure that their incentives do not induce expedience at the expense of virtuous decision making, that the organization is making good use of other people's money and not just assume it is, and that the organization's core virtues are clearly identified and communicated internally and externally to the organization.

Elements of Success

Measurement
A CSR program should begin with a baseline measurement of the company's positive, negative, or neutral reputation within the community. This should then be followed by regular post-implementation measurements of reputation and program success.

Community Focus
A CSR program should also include efforts to improve the company's community capital with local neighborhood and business audiences, as well as municipal and regional governments, where ever the company operates.

Thorough Reporting
A detailed report that enables the organization to appreciate what worked and why, what did not and why, and what is still inconclusive, and that identifies opportunities for improvement, is an important tool for improving and maintaining a CSR program.

Collaboration
All interested constituents of the affected parties should be brought to the table in developing the CSR policy. Suppliers might be able to help in the identification of appropriate standards and make sure that the policies developed do not conflict with local regulations or accepted standards, and their potential contribution should not be overlooked. Plus, if a supplier is allowed to provide input, chances are that it will be a lot easier for the supplier to accept it versus a policy that is simply forced upon the supplier.

Include CSR in All Trade Agreements
Whether they are bi-lateral, multi-lateral, or somewhere in between, don't overlook CSR. Don't be afraid to involve local governments and trade unions to ease relations down the road.

Don't exclude government efforts
Try to identify ways that the corporation and its peers can work with the government. Otherwise, they're likely to develop regulations on their own whose effect might be contrary to what they intend. Be sure to communicate the desire to see social and environmental practices improved. This will go a long way towards building social capital and credibility.

Education
Don't overlook the importance of training and education both internally and externally. In order for CSR initiatives to be properly implemented, both internal customers and external suppliers have to fully understand both the requirements and the benefits of adhering to such requirements, and this will likely involve regular communication and training, which must not be overlooked. Furthermore, a good education program will likely reduce the amount of resources the company needs to spend monitoring, policing, and correcting.


CSR & Small Business

As pointed out in the United Nations Industrial Development Organization's piece on Implications for Small and Medium Enterprises in Developing Countries, poorly thought out CSR standards could undermine Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in developing countries, especially if they act as a protectionist mechanism for retaining, jobs, trade, and investment in developed countries. Also, lack of access to technology, environmentally friendly materials, credit, information, and training act as barriers to social and environmental improvements for SMEs and they will often need a helping hand.

When dealing with SMEs in developing countries, upgrading the quality of their technology, management, and marketing are likely to be equally pressing concerns, which must be addressed in parallel with social and environmental impacts. This is important because SMEs make up over 90% of businesses worldwide and account for between 50% and 60% of employment.

Unlike large corporations with developed systems and economies of scale to deal with demands for formal monitoring and standards, as a general rule, SMEs do not have the financial or human resources to invest heavily in CSR unless it brings immediate tangible benefits. However, given that CSR will allow a small or mid-size enterprise to better align with current and emerging consumer concerns, achieve operational cost savings, improve productivity and quality, and even innovate, most are quite willing to embrace any sustainability initiatives the company wants them to adopt if the company is willing to guarantee them business and work with them to bring them up to the level they should be at.

Thus, one simply can't expect to simply outsource production and pass the costs of necessary improvements down the supply chain and get the results one is looking for, since the majority of businesses will be unable to improve without support and investment. If a company does, expect the suppliers to cut corners, fake certifications, or even fake walkthroughs by cleaning up the plant only on days before they know inspectors are coming and leave the company with egg on its face when the next up-and-coming investigative reporter does her expose of the week.

A Selected Bibliography

Corporate Social Responsibility by Directors & Boards, Winter 2006

Corporate Social Responsibility: A (UK) Government Update by www.csr.gov.uk, May 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility: An Implementation Guide for Canadian Business by Government of Canada, 2006

Corporate Social Responsibility: An Overview of Principles and Practices by Jill Murray, May 2004

Corporate Social Responsibility: Envisioning its Social Implications by Gerad Fonteneau, October 2003

Corporate Social Responsibility as a Determinant of Market Success: An Exploratory Analysis with Special Reference to MNCs in Emerging Markets by Sandeep K. Krishnan & Rakesh Balachandran

Corporate Social Responsibility: Implications for Small and Medium Enterprises in Developing Countries by Peter Raynard and Maya Forstater, 2002

Corporate Social Responsibility and the Canadian International Extractive Sector: A Survey by Ashraf Hassanein, Gideon Lundholm, Graham Willis, & Corrie Young, 2006

Corporate Social Responsibility Principles by Norsk Hydro

Introduction to Corporate Social Responsibility by Design Council, December 2006

John Lewis Partnership Responsible Sourcing Supplier Workbook by John Lewis Partnership, 2007

Rethinking Corporate Social Responsibility: A Fleishman-Hillard/National Consumers League Study by Fleishman-Hillard, 2006

Strengthening Implementation of Corporate Social Responsibility in Global Supply Chains by Helle Bank Jørgensen, Peder Michael Pruzan-Jørgensen, Margaret Jungk, and Aron Cramer, October 2003

Survey: Corporate Social Responsibility by The Economist, January 2005

What's Wrong With Corporate Social Responsibility by Corporate Watch, 2006

Author(s)

Michael G. Lamoureux, PhD of Sourcing Innovation

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